frequently asked questions

What is Bisgaard's taxon 45?
This taxon has been linked to sudded death syndrome in elephants with press releseases in major media. 
It was first described in 2005 mainly including isolates from humans biten by lions and tigers:
Christensen H, Bisgaard M, Angen O, Frederiksen W, Olsen JE. Characterization of sucrose-negative Pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite wounds. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jan;43(1):259-70. doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.1.259-270.2005.
Taxon 45 of Bisgaard is related to the well known pathogen Pasteurella multocida. There is not yet a validly published name for Bisgaard taxon 45 and it is probably a subspecies of Pasteurella multocida or a species of its own. 

What happened to HAP (
Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Pasteurella)? 
Pasteurellaceae includes Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus, in addition to many new genera classified and validly published during the past 25 years.

What is the correct name?
For members of Pasteurellaceae, the correct name will be the validly published name (see page on all genera and species). For members of Pasteurellaceae, there seems to be concensus to use the newest validly published names. 

What is "standing in nomenclature"? 
According to Tindall (2019),  standing in nomenclature is the same as validly published name (see above). 

How to separate synthetic from natural diamonds?
Only publication in IJSEM or on the VL in the journal will quality for a valid published name of a species. It is requiring that the type strain can be cultivated and has been deposited in two culture collection. Proposals to recognize only DNA as type material will open for nomenclature chaos as the different organisms can have different names.

Why the SeqCode should not been used:
Seven scientific arguments against use of the SeqCode

1. Loss of reproducibility. The scientific data supporting the description of a species may not be reproducible, particularly if the original material (DNA) is damaged or lost or if no scientific distribution of nonproliferating material is anticipated.

2. Loss of quality. The changing standards for genomic DNA sequence quality present potential complications when DNA sequence type material is replaced by new versions and the species descriptions have to be consequently revised. 

3. Loss of information of function. To date, functional assessments for genomes are limited and do not necessarily allow recognition or prediction of distinguishing phenotypic traits that may define the taxa.

4. Single DNA sequence species. The problems of defining what is required to present new taxa will increase. It is already current practice to describe novel species on the basis of single strains, while their intraspecies diversity at the genotypic and phenotypic level is a priori unknown. The SeqCode will lead to the proposal of unknown numbers of novel species based on the description of single DNA sequences only and will lead to taxonomic and nomenclatural chaos. 

5. Loss of information about species. The motivation for researchers to cultivate and preserve strains and to attempt to investigate phenotypes will decrease, resulting in unknown intra- and interspecies diversity, at the phenotypic levels.

6. MAGs can be contaminated. Metagenome assembled genomes can have up to 5% contamination which is equivalent to 250 predicted open reading frames in E. coli.

7. Ambiguous nomenclature of prokaryotes. Two biologically different species can get the same name.

see also the "Best of all worlds" paper. Why the SeqCode is a bad idea. 

SeqCode Denmark


Aim to include the a general collection of the most used references in Pasteurellaceae with a weight on taxonomy (chapters in Bergey's see separate page)

Adhikary, S., Nicklas, W., Bisgaard, M., Boot, R., Kuhnert, P., Waberschek, T., Aalbæk, B., Korczak, B. & Christensen. H. 2017. Rodentibacter gen. nov. including Rodentibacter pneumotropicus comb. nov., Rodentibacter heylii sp. nov., Rodentibacter myodis sp. nov., Rodentibacter ratti sp. nov., Rodentibacter heidelbergensis sp. nov., Rodentibacter trehalosifermentans sp. nov., Rodentibacter rarus sp. nov., Rodentibacter mrazii and two genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 67, 1793-1806. DESCRIPTION OF THE GENUS RODENTIBACTER.

Adhikary, S., Bisgaard, M., Nicklas, W. & Christensen, H. 2018. Reclassification of Bisgaard taxon 5 as Caviibacterium pharyngocola gen. nov., sp. nov. and Bisgaard taxon 7 as Conservatibacter flavescens gen. nov., sp. nov. IJSEM 68, 643-50. DESCIPTION OF TWO NEW GENERA.

Adhikary, S., Bisgaard, M., Boot, R., Benga, L., Nicklas, W. & Christensen, H. 2019. Development of multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of Rodentibacter pneumotropicus. Vet. Micro. 231, 11-17.

Alispahic, M., Christensen, H., Hess, C., Razzazi-Fazeli, E., Bisgaard, M. & Hess, M. 2011.
Identification of Gallibacterium species using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multilocus sequence analysis. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 301, 513-22. MALDI-TOF FOR GALLIBACTERIUM.

Alispahic, M., Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Hess, M. & Hess, C. 2014, MALDI-TOF MS confirms difficulties in separating species of the Avibacterium genus Av. Pathol. 43, 258-263. MALDI-TOF FOR AVIBACTERIUM.

Angen, Ø., Mutters, R., Caugant, D. A., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. (1999). Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov., Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49, 67-86. DESCRIPTION OF THE GENUS MANNHEIMIA.

Angen, Ø., Ahrens, P., Kuhnert, P., Christensen, H. and Mutters, R. (2003). Proposal of Histophilus somni gen. nov., sp. nov. for the three species incertae sedis "Haemophilus somnus", "Haemophilus agni" and "Histophilus ovis". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53, 1449-1456. DESCRIPTION OF THE GENUS HISTOPHILUS.

Anon. 1985. Judicial Opinion 58: Confirmation of the types in the Approved Lists as nomenclatural types including recognition of Nocardia asteroides (Eppinger 1891) Blanchard 1896 and Pasteurella multocida (Lehmann and Neumann 1899) Rosenbusch and Merchant 1939 as the respective type species of the genera Nocardia and Pasteurella and rejection of the species name Pasteurella gallicida (Burrill 1883) Buchanan 1925. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35, 538. RECOGNITION OF Pasteurella multocida AS THE TYPE SPECIES OF THE GENUS.

Baalsrud, K. J. (1987). Atrophic rhinitis in goats in Norway. Vet. Rec. 121, 350-353.

Bahrami, F., Ekins, A. and Niven, D. F. 2003. Iron acquisition by Actinobacillus suis: identification and characterization of transferrin receptor proteins and encoding genes. Vet. Microbiol. 94, 79-92.

Bakkali, M., Chen, T. Y., Lee, H. C. and Redfield, R. J. (2004). Evolutionary stability of DNA uptake signal sequences in the Pasteurellaceae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 4513-4518.

Baluyut, C. S., Simonson, R. R., Bemrick, W. J. and Maheswaran, S. K. (1981). Interaction of Pasteurella haemolytica with bovine neutrophils: identification and partial characterization of a cytotoxin. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42, 1920-1926

Bandara, A. B., Lawrence, M, L., Veit, H. P. and Inzana, T. J. (2003). Association of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae capsular polysaccharide with virulence in pigs. Infect. Immun. 71, 3320-3328.

Baum, K. H., Shin, S. J., Rebhun, W. C. and Patten, V. H. (1984). Isolation of Actinobacillus lignieresii from enlarged tongue of a horse. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Ass. 185, 792-793.

Beck, M., van den Bosch, J. F., Jongenelen, I. M. C. A., Loeffen, P. L. W., Nielsen, R., Nicolet, J. and Frey, J. (1994). RTX toxin genotypes and phenotypes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32, 2749-2754.

Benga, L., Sager, M. & Christensen, H. 2018. From the [Pasteurella] pneumotropica complex to Rodentibacter spp.: an update on [Pasteurella] pneumotropica. Vet. Microbiol. 217, 121-134.

Benga, L., Nicklas, W., Lautwein, T., Verbarg, S., Gougoula, C., Engelhardt, E., Benten, P. M., Köhrer, K., Sager, M., Christensen, H. 2021. Rodentibacter haemolyticus sp. nov. isolated from laboratory rodents. IJSEM 71, 4947.

Bendixen, P. H., Shewen, P. E., Rosendal, S. and Wilkie, B. N. (1981).Toxicity of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae for porcine lung macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes, and testicular cells. Infect. Immun. 33, 673-676.

Berthoud, H., Frey, J. and Kuhnert, P. (2002). Characterization of Aqx and its operon: the hemolytic RTX determinant of Actinobacillus equuli. Vet. Microbiol. 87, 159-174.

Biberstein, E. L. and White, D. C. (1969). A proposal for the establishment of two new Haemophilus species. J. Med. Microbiol. 2, 75-78.

Biberstein, E. L., Gills, M. and Knight, H. (1960). Serological types of Pasteurella hemolytica. Cornell Vet. 50, 283-300.

Bisgaard, M. 1975. Characterization of atypical Actinobacillus lignieresii isolated from ducks with salpingitis and peritonitis. Nord. Vet.-Med. 27, 378-383.

Bisgaard, M. 1977. Incidence of Pasteurella haemolytica in the respiratory tract of apparently healthy chickens and chickens with infectious bronchitis. Characterisation of 213 strains. Avian Pathol. 6, 285-292.

Bisgaard, M. 1986. Actinobacillus muris sp. nov. isolated from mice. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. B 94, 1-8.

Bisgaard, M. 1993. Ecology and significance of Pasteurellaceae in animals. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279, 7-26.

Bisgaard, M. and Dam, A. 1981. Salpingitis in poultry. II. Prevalence, bacteriology, and possible pathogenesis in egg-laying chickens. Nord. Vet. Med. 33, 81-89.

Bisgaard, M. and Mutters, R. 1986 a. A new facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative fermentative rod obtained from different pathological lesions in poultry and tentatively designated taxon 14. Avian Pathol. 15, 117-127.

Bisgaard, M. and Mutters, R. 1986 b. Characterization of some previously unclassified "Pasteurella" spp. obtained from the oral cavity of dogs and cats and description of a new species tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae Pohl 1981 and provisionally called taxon 16. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. Sect. B, 94, 177-184.

Bisgaard, M., Piechulla, K., Ying, Y.-T., Frederiksen, W. and Mannheim, W. 1984. Prevalence of organisms described as Actinobacillus suis or haemolytic Actinobacillus equuli in the oral cavity of horses. Comparative investigations of strains obtained and porcine strains of A. suis sensu stricto. Acta Path. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. Sect. B 92, 291-298.

Bisgaard, M., Phillips, J. E. and Mannheim, W. 1986. Characterization and identification of bovine and ovine Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity and rumen of apparently normal cattle and sheep. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. B 94, 9-17.

Bisgaard, M., Houghton, S. B., Mutters, R. and Stenzel, A. 1991 a. Reclassification of German, British and Dutch isolates of so-called Pasteurella multocida obtained from pneumonic calf lungs. Vet. Microbiol. 26, 115-124.

Bisgaard, M., Abdullahi, M. Z. and Gilmour, N. J. 1991 b. Further studies on the identification of Pasteurellaceae from cattle lungs. Vet. Rec. 128, 428-289.

Bisgaard, M., Brown, D. J., Costas, M. and Ganner M. 1993. Whole cell protein profiling of actinobacillus-like strains classified as taxon 2 and taxon 3 according to Bisgaard. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279, 92-103.

Bisgaard, M., Hinz, K.-H., Petersen, K. D. and Christensen, J. P. 1999. Identification of members of the Pasteurellaceae isolated from birds and characterization of two new taxa isolated from psittacine birds. Avian Pathol. 28, 369-377.

Bisgaard, M., Christensen, H., Behr, K.-P., Baron, G. and Christensen, J. P. 2005. Investigations on the clonality of isolates of Pasteurella gallinarum obtained from turkeys in Germany. Avian Pathol. 34, 106-110.

Bisgaard. M., Christensen, J. P., Bojesen, A. M. and Christensen, H. 2007. Classification of
Avibacterium endocarditidis sp. nov. isolated from valvular endocarditis in chickens. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 1729-1734.

Bisgaard, M., Korczak, B. M., Busse, H.-J., Kuhnert, P., Bojesen, A. M. & Christensen, H. 2009.
Classification of the taxon 2 and taxon 3 complex of Bisgaard with Gallibacterium and description of Gallibacterium melopsittaci sp. nov., Gallibacterium trehalosifermentans sp. nov. and Gallibacterium salpingitidis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59, 735-744.

Bisgaard, M., Bojesen, A. M., Christensen, J. P., and Christensen, H. 2010. Observations on the incidence and aetiology of valvular endocarditis in broiler breeders and detection of a newly described taxon of Pasteurellaceae, Avibacterium endocarditidis. Avian Pathol. 39, 177-181.

Bisgaard, M. & Christensen, H. 2012. Classification of avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like
organisms (Bisgaard taxon 26) associated with anseriforme birds as Actinobacillus anseriformium sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 62, 352-358.

Bisgaard, M. & Christensen, H. 2019. Significance and identification of a part of taxon 3 complex of Bisgaard (Gallibacterium genomospecies 3) associated with pigeons. BMTW 132, 360-366.

Bisgaard, M., Nørskov-Lauritsen, N., de Wit, J.J., Hess, C. & Christensen, H. 2012.
Multilocus sequence phylogenetic analysis of Avibacterium. Microbiology 158, 993-1004.

Bisgaard, M., Petersen, A. & Christensen, H. 2013. Multilocus sequence analysis of Pasteurella multocida demonstrates a type species under development. Microbiology 159, 580-590.

Bisgaard, M., Xin, D., Bertelsen, M. F., Bojesen, M. F. & Christensen, H. 2017. Prevalence of taxa of Pasteurellaceae among populations of healthy captive psittacine birds. Av. Dis. 61, 102-106

Bisgaard, M., Christensen, H., Clermont, D., Dijkshoorn, L., Janda, M., Moore, E. R. B., Nemec, A., Nørskov-Lauritsen, N., Overmann, J. and Reubsaet, F. A. G. 2019. The use of genomic DNA sequences as type material for valid publication of bacterial species names will have severe implications for clinical microbiology and related disciplines. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 95, 102-103.

Bisgaard, M. & Christensen, H. 2021. Classification of Bisgaard’s taxa 14 and 32 and a taxon from kestrels demonstrating satellitic growth and proposal of Spirabiliibacterium gen. nov., including the description of three species: Spirabiliibacterium mucosae gen. nov. sp. nov., Spirabiliibacterium gentiles sp. nov., and Spirabiliibacterium tinnunculus sp. nov. IJSEM 71, 4758.

Bisgaard M, Christensen H. Mannheimia cairinae sp. nov., a novel species of Mannheimia obtained from Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and reclassification of Mannheimia ovis as heterotypic synonym of Mannheimia pernigra. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2023 Jun;73(6). doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.005947.

Blackall, P. J. (1999). Infectious coryza: overview of the disease and new diagnostic options. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12, 627-632.

Blackall, P. J., Bisgaard, M. and McKenzie, R.A. (1997 a). Characterization of Australian isolates of Actinobacillus capsulatus, Actinobacillus equuli, Pasteurella caballi and Bisgaard taxa 9 and 11. Aust. Vet. J. 75, 52-55.

Blackall, P.J., Trott, D. J., Rapp-Gabrielson, V. and Hampson, D. J. (1997 b). Analysis of Haemophilus parasuis by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Vet. Microbiol. 56, 125-134.

Blackall, P. J., Fegan, N., Chew, G. T. I. and Hampson, D. J. (1998 a). Population structure and diversity of avian isolates of Pasteurella multocida from Australia. Microbiology 144, 279-289.

Blackall, P. J., Christensen, J. P. and Bisgaard, M. (1998 b). Diversity among isolates of Actinobacillus equuli and related organisms as revealed by ribotyping. Aust. Vet. J. 76, 423-425.

Blackall, P. J., Fegan, N., Chew, G. T. I. and Hampson, D. J. (1999). A study of the use of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis as a typing tool in fowl cholera outbreaks. Avian Path. 28, 195-198.  

Blackall, P., Angen, Ø., Fegan, N., Blackall, L., Mutters, R. and Bisgaard, M. (2001). Characterisation of a novel Mannheimia sp. from Australian feedlot cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 79, 634-639.

Blackall, P. J., Bisgaard, M, and Stephens, C. P. (2002 a). Phenotypic characterisation of Australian sheep and cattle isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica, Mannheimia granulomatis and Mannheimia varigena. Aust. Vet. J. 80, 87-91.

Blackall, P. J., Klaasen, H. L., van den Bosch, H., Kuhnert, P. and Frey, J. (2002 b). Proposal of a new serovar of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: serovar 15. Vet. Microbiol. 84, 47-52.

Blackall, P. J., Christensen, H., Beckenham, T., Blackall, L. L. and Bisgaard, M. 2005. Reclassification of Pasteurella gallinarum, [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov., Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 55, 353-362.

Blackall, P. J., Bojesen, A. M., Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2007. Reclassification of
[Pasteurella] trehalosi as Bibersteinia trehalosi gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 666-674.

Bojesen, A. M., Christensen, H., Nielsen, S. S., Bisgaard, M. 2007. Host-specific bacterial lineages in the taxon 2 and 3 complex of Pasteurellaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 30, 119-127.

Bojesen, A. M., Vazquez, M. E., Robles, R., Gonzalez, C., Sopriano, E. V., Olsen, J. E., and Christensen, H. 2007. Specific identification of Gallibacterium by a PCR using primers targeting the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes. Vet. Microbiol. 123, 262-268.

Borrathybay, E., Sawada, T., Kataoka, Y., Okiyama, E., Kawamoto, E. and Amao, H. (2003). Capsule thickness and amounts of a 39 kDa capsular protein of avian Pasteurella multocida type A strains correlate with their pathogenicity for chickens. Vet. Microbiol. 97, 215-227.

Bosch, M., Garrido, M. E., Llagostera, M., Perez De Rozas, A. M., Badiola, I. and Barbe, J. (2002). Characterization of the Pasteurella multocida hgbA gene encoding a hemoglobin-binding protein. Infect. Immun. 70, 5955-5964.

Bozena M. Korczak, Magne Bisgaard, Henrik Christensen, and Peter Kuhnert. 2014. Frederiksenia canicola gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 105, 731-41.

Burrows, L. L. and Lo, R. Y. (1992). Molecular characterization of an RTX toxin determinant from Actinobacillus suis. Infect. Immun. 60, 2166-2173.

Busse, H.-J., Bunka, S., Hensel, A. and Lubitz, W. (1997). Discrimination of members of the family Pasteurelllaceae based on polyamine patterns. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47, 698-708.

Carter, G. R. (1955). Studies on Pasteurella multocida. I. A hemagglutination test for the identification of serological types. Am. J. Vet. Res. 16, 481-484.

Carter, G. R. 1967. Pasteurellosis: Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella hemolytica. Adv. Vet. Sci. Com. 11, 321-379.

Carter, G. R. (1973). Pasteurella infections as sequelae to respiratory viral infections. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 163, 863-864.

Carter, G. R. and De Alwis, M. C. L. (1989). Haemorrhagic septicaemia. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.). Acad. Press, London, pp. 131-160.

Chen, X., Miflin, J. K., Zhang, P. and Blackall, P. J. (1996). Development and application of DNA probes and PCR tests for Haemophilus paragallinarum. Avian Dis. 40, 398-407.

Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2006. The Genus Pasteurella In: The Prokaryotes. 3rd ed. vol. 6, pp. 1062-1090. Eds. Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., and Stackebrandt, E. Springer, New York.

Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2008. Taxonomy and biodiversity of members of Pasteurellaceae, pp. 1-26. In Kuhnert, P and Christensen, H. Pasteurellaceae, Biology, genomics and molecular aspects. Caister Acad. Press.

Christensen, H. & Bisgaard, M. 2018. Classification of genera of Pasteurellaceae using conserved predicted protein sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 68, 2692-2696.

Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2021. Molecular Medical Microbiology 3rd ed. Chapter 79. Pasteurella. Elsevier, submitted.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Angen, Ï. and Olsen, J. E. 2002. Final classification of Bisgaard taxon 9 as Actinobacillus arthritidis sp. nov. and recognition of a novel genomospecies for equine strains of A. lignieresii. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 52, 1239-1246.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M. and Olsen, J. E. 2002. Reclassification of equine isolates previously reported as Actinobacillus equuli, A. suis or taxon 11 of Bisgaard and proposal of two subspecies of A. equuli: A. equuli subsp. equuli and A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 52, 1569-1576.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Bojesen, M., Mutters, R. and Olsen, J. E. 2003. Genetic relationships among strains of biovars of avian isolates classified as "Pasteurella haemolytica", "Actinobacillus salpingitidis" or Pasteurella anatis with proposal of Gallibacterium anatis gen. nov., comb. nov. and description of additional genomospecies within Gallibacterium gen. nov. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 53, 275-287.

Christensen, H., Foster, G., Christensen, J. P., Pennycott, T., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA sequence comparison of avian taxa of Bisgaard and characterization and description of two new taxa of Pasteurellaceae J. Appl. Microbiol. 95, 354-363.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Larsen, J. and Olsen, J. E. 2003. PCR-detection of Haemophilus paragallinarum, H. somnus, Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, Mannheinia spp., P. trehalosi and P. multocida. In: PCR detection of microbial animal pathogens. Eds. Frey, J. and Sachse, K. pp. 257-274. Methods in Molecular Biology-series, Humana Press, Tatowa.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Hommez, J. and Olsen, J. E. (2004). Comparative investigations of porcine isolates of Bisgaard taxon 42 and equine isolates of [Pasteurella] caballi. In preparation.

Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2004. Revised definition of Actinobacillus sensu stricto isolated from animals. A review with special emphasis on diagnosis. Vet. Microbiol. 99, 13-30.

Christensen, H., Angen, Ï., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. 2004. Genotypical characterization of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida and revised description of P. multocida to include phenotypic variants previously classified as biovar 2 of P. canis and P. avium. Microbiology 150, 1757-1767.

Christensen, H., Kuhnert, P., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. 2004. Comparative phylogeny between the housekeeping genes atpD, infB, rpoB and 16S rDNA within Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54, 1601-1609.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Aalbµk, B. and Olsen, J. E. 2004. Reclassification of Bisgaard taxon 33 with proposal of Volucribacter psittacicida gen.nov., sp. nov. and Volucribacter amazonae as new members of Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54, 813-818.

Christensen, H., Kuhnert, P., Bisgaard, M., Mutters, R., Dziva, F. and Olsen J. E. 2005. Emended description of porcine [Pasteurella] aerogenes, [Pasteurella] mairii and [Actinobacillus] rossii. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 55, 209-223.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Angen, Ø., Frederiksen, W. and Olsen, J. E. 2005. Characterization of sucrose negative variants of Pasteurella multocida including isolates from large cat bite-wounds. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43, 259-270.

Christensen, H., Hommez, J., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. 2006. [Pasteurella] caballi infection not limited to horses - a closer look at Taxon 42 of Bisgaard. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 43, 424-9.

Christensen, H., Kuhnert, P., Busse, H.-J., Frederiksen, W. and Bisgaard, M. 2007. Proposed minimal standards for the description of genera, species and subspecies of the Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 166-178.

Christensen, H. & Bisgaard, M. 2010. Molecular classification and its impact on diagnostics and understanding the phylogeny and epidemiology of selected members of Pasteurellaceae of veterinary importance. Berliner und Munchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 123, 20-30.

Christensen, H., Bojesen, A. M. & Bisgaard, M. 2011. Mannheimia caviae sp. nov., isolated from epidemic conjunctivitis and otitis media in guinea pigs. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61, 1699-1704.

Christensen, H., Korczak, B.M., Bojesen, A.M., Kuhnert, P., Frederiksen, W.C. & Magne Bisgaard, M. 2011. Classification of organisms previously reported as the SP- or Stewart-Letscher group with Necropsobacter gen. nov., and description of a new species Necropsobacter rosorum, sp. nov., for organisms of the SP-group. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61, 1829-1836.

Christensen, H., Bertelsen, M.F., Bojesen, A.M. & Bisgaard, M. 2012. Classification of Pasteurella sp. B as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62, 1396-1401.

Christensen, H., Nicklas, W. & Bisgaard, M. (2014). Mesocricetibacter intestinalis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Cricetibacter osteomyelitidis gen. nov., sp. nov. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 64, 3636û3643.

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