frequently asked questions

What happened to HAP (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Pasteurella)? 
Pasteurellaceae includes Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus, in addition to many new genera classified and validly published during the past 25 years.

What is the correct name?
The correct name will in 99% of cases be the most recent validly published name (see page on all genera and species). In rare cases, users of names can disagree with respect to the value of the most recent validly published name and can have reasons to use an earlier synonym. 

What is "standing in nomenclature"? 
According to Tindall (2019),  standing in nomenclature is the same as validly published name (see above). 


PUBLICATIONS

Aim to include the a general collection of the most used references in Pasteurellaceae with a weight on taxonomy chapters in Bergey's see separate page

Adhikary, S., Nicklas, W., Bisgaard, M., Boot, R., Kuhnert, P., Waberschek, T., Aalbæk, B., Korczak, B. & Christensen. H. 2017. Rodentibacter gen. nov. including Rodentibacter pneumotropicus comb. nov., Rodentibacter heylii sp. nov., Rodentibacter myodis sp. nov., Rodentibacter ratti sp. nov., Rodentibacter heidelbergensis sp. nov., Rodentibacter trehalosifermentans sp. nov., Rodentibacter rarus sp. nov., Rodentibacter mrazii and two genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 67, 1793-1806. DESCRIPTION OF THE GENUS RODENTIBACTER.

Adhikary, S., Bisgaard, M., Nicklas, W. & Christensen, H. 2018. Reclassification of Bisgaard taxon 5 as Caviibacterium pharyngocola gen. nov., sp. nov. and Bisgaard taxon 7 as Conservatibacter flavescens gen. nov., sp. nov. IJSEM 68, 643-50. DESCIPTION OF TWO NEW GENERA.

Adhikary, S., Bisgaard, M., Boot, R., Benga, L., Nicklas, W. & Christensen, H. 2019. Development of multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of Rodentibacter pneumotropicus. Vet. Micro. 231, 11-17.
MLST FOR R. PNEUMOTROPICUS.

Alispahic, M., Christensen, H., Hess, C., Razzazi-Fazeli, E., Bisgaard, M. & Hess, M. 2011.
Identification of Gallibacterium species using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass
spectrometry and multilocus sequence analysis. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 301, 513-22. MALDI-TOF FOR GALLIBACTERIUM.

Alispahic, M., Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Hess, M. & Hess, C. 2014, MALDI-TOF MS confirms
difficulties in separating species of the Avibacterium genus Av. Pathol. 43, 258-263. MALDI-TOF FOR AVIBACTERIUM.

Angen, Ø., Mutters, R., Caugant, D. A., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. (1999). Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov., Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49, 67-86. DESCRIPTION OF THE GENUS MANNHEIMIA.

Angen, Ø., Ahrens, P., Kuhnert, P., Christensen, H. and Mutters, R. (2003). Proposal of Histophilus somni gen. nov., sp. nov. for the three species incertae sedis "Haemophilus somnus", "Haemophilus agni" and "Histophilus ovis". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53, 1449-1456. DESCRIPTION OF THE GENUS HISTOPHILUS.

Anon. 1985. Judicial Opinion 58: Confirmation of the types in the Approved Lists as nomenclatural types including recognition of Nocardia asteroides (Eppinger 1891) Blanchard 1896 and Pasteurella multocida (Lehmann and Neumann 1899) Rosenbusch and Merchant 1939 as the respective type species of the genera Nocardia and Pasteurella and rejection of the species name Pasteurella gallicida (Burrill 1883) Buchanan 1925. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35, 538. RECOGNITION OF Pasteurella multocida AS THE TYPE SPECIES OF THE GENUS.

Baalsrud, K. J. (1987). Atrophic rhinitis in goats in Norway. Vet. Rec. 121, 350-353.

Bahrami, F., Ekins, A. and Niven, D. F. 2003. Iron acquisition by Actinobacillus suis: identification and characterization of transferrin receptor proteins and encoding genes. Vet. Microbiol. 94, 79-92.

Bakkali, M., Chen, T. Y., Lee, H. C. and Redfield, R. J. (2004). Evolutionary stability of DNA uptake signal sequences in the Pasteurellaceae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 4513-4518.

Baluyut, C. S., Simonson, R. R., Bemrick, W. J. and Maheswaran, S. K. (1981). Interaction of Pasteurella haemolytica with bovine neutrophils: identification and partial characterization of a cytotoxin. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42, 1920-1926

Bandara, A. B., Lawrence, M, L., Veit, H. P. and Inzana, T. J. (2003). Association of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae capsular polysaccharide with virulence in pigs. Infect. Immun. 71, 3320-3328.

Baum, K. H., Shin, S. J., Rebhun, W. C. and Patten, V. H. (1984). Isolation of Actinobacillus lignieresii from enlarged tongue of a horse. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Ass. 185, 792-793.

Beck, M., van den Bosch, J. F., Jongenelen, I. M. C. A., Loeffen, P. L. W., Nielsen, R., Nicolet, J. and Frey, J. (1994). RTX toxin genotypes and phenotypes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32, 2749-2754.

Benga, L., Sager, M. & Christensen, H. 2018. From the [Pasteurella] pneumotropica complex to Rodentibacter spp.: an update on [Pasteurella] pneumotropica. Vet. Microbiol. 217, 121-134.

Benga, L., Nicklas, W., Lautwein, T., Verbarg, S., Gougoula, C., Engelhardt, E., Benten, P. M., Köhrer, K., Sager, M., Christensen, H. 2021. Rodentibacter haemolyticus sp. nov. isolated from laboratory rodents. IJSEM 71, 4947.

Bendixen, P. H., Shewen, P. E., Rosendal, S. and Wilkie, B. N. (1981).Toxicity of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae for porcine lung macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes, and testicular cells. Infect. Immun. 33, 673-676.

Berthoud, H., Frey, J. and Kuhnert, P. (2002). Characterization of Aqx and its operon: the hemolytic RTX determinant of Actinobacillus equuli. Vet. Microbiol. 87, 159-174.

Biberstein, E. L. and White, D. C. (1969). A proposal for the establishment of two new Haemophilus species. J. Med. Microbiol. 2, 75-78.

Biberstein, E. L., Gills, M. and Knight, H. (1960). Serological types of Pasteurella hemolytica. Cornell Vet. 50, 283-300.

Bisgaard, M. 1975. Characterization of atypical Actinobacillus lignieresii isolated from ducks with salpingitis and peritonitis. Nord. Vet.-Med. 27, 378-383.

Bisgaard, M. 1977. Incidence of Pasteurella haemolytica in the respiratory tract of apparently healthy chickens and chickens with infectious bronchitis. Characterisation of 213 strains. Avian Pathol. 6, 285-292.

Bisgaard, M. 1986. Actinobacillus muris sp. nov. isolated from mice. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. B 94, 1-8.

Bisgaard, M. 1993. Ecology and significance of Pasteurellaceae in animals. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279, 7-26.

Bisgaard, M. and Dam, A. 1981. Salpingitis in poultry. II. Prevalence, bacteriology, and possible pathogenesis in egg-laying chickens. Nord. Vet. Med. 33, 81-89.

Bisgaard, M. and Mutters, R. 1986 a. A new facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative fermentative rod obtained from different pathological lesions in poultry and tentatively designated taxon 14. Avian Pathol. 15, 117-127.

Bisgaard, M. and Mutters, R. 1986 b. Characterization of some previously unclassified "Pasteurella" spp. obtained from the oral cavity of dogs and cats and description of a new species tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae Pohl 1981 and provisionally called taxon 16. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. Sect. B, 94, 177-184.

Bisgaard, M., Piechulla, K., Ying, Y.-T., Frederiksen, W. and Mannheim, W. 1984. Prevalence of organisms described as Actinobacillus suis or haemolytic Actinobacillus equuli in the oral cavity of horses. Comparative investigations of strains obtained and porcine strains of A. suis sensu stricto. Acta Path. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. Sect. B 92, 291-298.

Bisgaard, M., Phillips, J. E. and Mannheim, W. 1986. Characterization and identification of bovine and ovine Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity and rumen of apparently normal cattle and sheep. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. B 94, 9-17.

Bisgaard, M., Houghton, S. B., Mutters, R. and Stenzel, A. 1991 a. Reclassification of German, British and Dutch isolates of so-called Pasteurella multocida obtained from pneumonic calf lungs. Vet. Microbiol. 26, 115-124.

Bisgaard, M., Abdullahi, M. Z. and Gilmour, N. J. 1991 b. Further studies on the identification of Pasteurellaceae from cattle lungs. Vet. Rec. 128, 428-289.

Bisgaard, M., Brown, D. J., Costas, M. and Ganner M. 1993. Whole cell protein profiling of actinobacillus-like strains classified as taxon 2 and taxon 3 according to Bisgaard. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279, 92-103.

Bisgaard, M., Hinz, K.-H., Petersen, K. D. and Christensen, J. P. 1999. Identification of members of the Pasteurellaceae isolated from birds and characterization of two new taxa isolated from psittacine birds. Avian Pathol. 28, 369-377.

Bisgaard, M., Christensen, H., Behr, K.-P., Baron, G. and Christensen, J. P. 2005. Investigations on the
clonality of isolates of Pasteurella gallinarum obtained from turkeys in Germany. Avian Pathol. 34, 106-
110.

Bisgaard. M., Christensen, J. P., Bojesen, A. M. and Christensen, H. 2007. Classification of
Avibacterium endocarditidis sp. nov. isolated from valvular endocarditis in chickens. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
Microbiol. 57, 1729-1734.

Bisgaard, M., Korczak, B. M., Busse, H.-J., Kuhnert, P., Bojesen, A. M. & Christensen, H. 2009.
Classification of the taxon 2 and taxon 3 complex of Bisgaard with Gallibacterium and description of
Gallibacterium melopsittaci sp. nov., Gallibacterium trehalosifermentans sp. nov. and Gallibacterium
salpingitidis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59, 735-744.

Bisgaard, M., Bojesen, A. M., Christensen, J. P., and Christensen, H. 2010. Observations on the
incidence and aetiology of valvular endocarditis in broiler breeders and detection of a newly described taxon
of Pasteurellaceae, Avibacterium endocarditidis. Avian Pathol. 39, 177-181.

Bisgaard, M. & Christensen, H. 2012. Classification of avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like
organisms (Bisgaard taxon 26) associated with anseriforme birds as Actinobacillus anseriformium sp. nov.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 62, 352-358.

Bisgaard, M. & Christensen, H. 2019. Significance and identification of a part of taxon 3 complex of Bisgaard (Gallibacterium genomospecies 3) associated with pigeons. BMTW 132, 360-366.

Bisgaard, M., Nørskov-Lauritsen, N., de Wit, J.J., Hess, C. & Christensen, H. 2012.
Multilocus sequence phylogenetic analysis of Avibacterium. Microbiology 158, 993-1004.

Bisgaard, M., Petersen, A. & Christensen, H. 2013. Multilocus sequence analysis of Pasteurella
multocida demonstrates a type species under development. Microbiology 159, 580-590.

Bisgaard, M., Xin, D., Bertelsen, M. F., Bojesen, M. F. & Christensen, H. 2017. Prevalence of taxa of Pasteurellaceae among populations of healthy captive psittacine birds. Av. Dis. 61, 102-106

Bisgaard, M., Christensen, H., Clermont, D., Dijkshoorn, L., Janda, M., Moore, E. R. B., Nemec, A., Nørskov-Lauritsen, N., Overmann, J. and Reubsaet, F. A. G. 2019. The use of genomic DNA sequences as type material for valid publication of bacterial species names will have severe implications for clinical microbiology and related disciplines. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 95, 102-103.

Bisgaard, M. & Christensen, H. 2021. Classification of Bisgaard’s taxa 14 and 32 and a taxon from kestrels demonstrating satellitic growth and proposal of Spirabiliibacterium gen. nov., including the description of three species: Spirabiliibacterium mucosae gen. nov. sp. nov., Spirabiliibacterium gentiles sp. nov., and Spirabiliibacterium tinnunculus sp. nov. IJSEM 71, 4758.

Blackall, P. J. (1999). Infectious coryza: overview of the disease and new diagnostic options. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12, 627-632.

Blackall, P. J., Bisgaard, M. and McKenzie, R.A. (1997 a). Characterization of Australian isolates of Actinobacillus capsulatus, Actinobacillus equuli, Pasteurella caballi and Bisgaard taxa 9 and 11. Aust. Vet. J. 75, 52-55.

Blackall, P.J., Trott, D. J., Rapp-Gabrielson, V. and Hampson, D. J. (1997 b). Analysis of Haemophilus parasuis by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Vet. Microbiol. 56, 125-134.

Blackall, P. J., Fegan, N., Chew, G. T. I. and Hampson, D. J. (1998 a). Population structure and diversity of avian isolates of Pasteurella multocida from Australia. Microbiology 144, 279-289.

Blackall, P. J., Christensen, J. P. and Bisgaard, M. (1998 b). Diversity among isolates of Actinobacillus equuli and related organisms as revealed by ribotyping. Aust. Vet. J. 76, 423-425.

Blackall, P. J., Fegan, N., Chew, G. T. I. and Hampson, D. J. (1999). A study of the use of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis as a typing tool in fowl cholera outbreaks. Avian Path. 28, 195-198.  

Blackall, P., Angen, Ø., Fegan, N., Blackall, L., Mutters, R. and Bisgaard, M. (2001). Characterisation of a novel Mannheimia sp. from Australian feedlot cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 79, 634-639.

Blackall, P. J., Bisgaard, M, and Stephens, C. P. (2002 a). Phenotypic characterisation of Australian sheep and cattle isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica, Mannheimia granulomatis and Mannheimia varigena. Aust. Vet. J. 80, 87-91.

Blackall, P. J., Klaasen, H. L., van den Bosch, H., Kuhnert, P. and Frey, J. (2002 b). Proposal of a new serovar of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: serovar 15. Vet. Microbiol. 84, 47-52.

Blackall, P. J., Christensen, H., Beckenham, T., Blackall, L. L. and Bisgaard, M. 2005. Reclassification
of Pasteurella gallinarum, [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as
Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov., Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium
avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 55, 353-362.

Blackall, P. J., Bojesen, A. M., Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2007. Reclassification of
[Pasteurella] trehalosi as Bibersteinia trehalosi gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 666-
674.

Bojesen, A. M., Christensen, H., Nielsen, S. S., Bisgaard, M. 2007. Host-specific bacterial lineages in
the taxon 2 and 3 complex of Pasteurellaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 30, 119-127.

Bojesen, A. M., Vazquez, M. E., Robles, R., Gonzalez, C., Sopriano, E. V., Olsen, J. E., and Christensen, H. 2007. Specific identification of Gallibacterium by a PCR using primers targeting the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes. Vet. Microbiol. 123, 262-268.

Borrathybay, E., Sawada, T., Kataoka, Y., Okiyama, E., Kawamoto, E. and Amao, H. (2003). Capsule thickness and amounts of a 39 kDa capsular protein of avian Pasteurella multocida type A strains correlate with their pathogenicity for chickens. Vet. Microbiol. 97, 215-227.

Bosch, M., Garrido, M. E., Llagostera, M., Perez De Rozas, A. M., Badiola, I. and Barbe, J. (2002). Characterization of the Pasteurella multocida hgbA gene encoding a hemoglobin-binding protein. Infect. Immun. 70, 5955-5964.

Bozena M. Korczak, Magne Bisgaard, Henrik Christensen, and Peter Kuhnert. 2014. Frederiksenia canicola gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 105, 731-41.

Burrows, L. L. and Lo, R. Y. (1992). Molecular characterization of an RTX toxin determinant from Actinobacillus suis. Infect. Immun. 60, 2166-2173.

Busse, H.-J., Bunka, S., Hensel, A. and Lubitz, W. (1997). Discrimination of members of the family Pasteurelllaceae based on polyamine patterns. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47, 698-708.

Carter, G. R. (1955). Studies on Pasteurella multocida. I. A hemagglutination test for the identification of serological types. Am. J. Vet. Res. 16, 481-484.

Carter, G. R. 1967. Pasteurellosis: Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella hemolytica. Adv. Vet. Sci. Com. 11, 321-379.

Carter, G. R. (1973). Pasteurella infections as sequelae to respiratory viral infections. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 163, 863-864.

Carter, G. R. and De Alwis, M. C. L. (1989). Haemorrhagic septicaemia. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.). Acad. Press, London, pp. 131-160.

Chen, X., Miflin, J. K., Zhang, P. and Blackall, P. J. (1996). Development and application of DNA probes and PCR tests for Haemophilus paragallinarum. Avian Dis. 40, 398-407.


Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2006. The Genus Pasteurella In: The Prokaryotes. 3rd ed. vol. 6, pp.
1062-1090. Eds. Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., and Stackebrandt, E. Springer,
New York.

Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2008. Taxonomy and biodiversity of members of Pasteurellaceae, pp.
1-26. In Kuhnert, P and Christensen, H. Pasteurellaceae, Biology, genomics and molecular aspects. Caister
Acad. Press.

Christensen, H. & Bisgaard, M. 2018. Classification of genera of Pasteurellaceae using conserved predicted protein sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 68, 2692-2696.

Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2021. Molecular Medical Microbiology 3rd ed. Chapter 79. Pasteurella. Elsevier, submitted.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Angen, Ï. and Olsen, J. E. 2002. Final classification of Bisgaard taxon
9 as Actinobacillus arthritidis sp. nov. and recognition of a novel genomospecies for equine strains of A.
lignieresii. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 52, 1239-1246.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M. and Olsen, J. E. 2002. Reclassification of equine isolates previously
reported as Actinobacillus equuli, A. suis or taxon 11 of Bisgaard and proposal of two subspecies of A.
equuli: A. equuli subsp. equuli and A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 52, 1569-
1576.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Bojesen, M., Mutters, R. and Olsen, J. E. 2003. Genetic relationships
among strains of biovars of avian isolates classified as "Pasteurella haemolytica", "Actinobacillus
salpingitidis" or Pasteurella anatis with proposal of Gallibacterium anatis gen. nov., comb. nov. and
description of additional genomospecies within Gallibacterium gen. nov. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 53,
275-287.

Christensen, H., Foster, G., Christensen, J. P., Pennycott, T., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA sequence comparison of avian taxa of Bisgaard and characterization and description of two new taxa of Pasteurellaceae J. Appl. Microbiol. 95, 354-363.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Larsen, J. and Olsen, J. E. 2003. PCR-detection of Haemophilus paragallinarum, H. somnus, Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, Mannheinia spp., P. trehalosi and P. multocida. In: PCR detection of microbial animal pathogens. Eds. Frey, J. and Sachse, K. pp. 257-274. Methods in Molecular Biology-series, Humana Press, Tatowa.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Hommez, J. and Olsen, J. E. (2004). Comparative investigations of porcine isolates of Bisgaard taxon 42 and equine isolates of [Pasteurella] caballi. In preparation.

Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2004. Revised definition of Actinobacillus sensu stricto isolated from animals. A review with special emphasis on diagnosis. Vet. Microbiol. 99, 13-30.

Christensen, H., Angen, Ï., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. 2004. Genotypical characterization of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida and revised description of P. multocida to include phenotypic variants previously classified as biovar 2 of P. canis and P. avium. Microbiology 150, 1757-1767.

Christensen, H., Kuhnert, P., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. 2004. Comparative phylogeny between the housekeeping genes atpD, infB, rpoB and 16S rDNA within Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54, 1601-1609.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Aalbµk, B. and Olsen, J. E. 2004. Reclassification of Bisgaard taxon 33 with proposal of Volucribacter psittacicida gen.nov., sp. nov. and Volucribacter amazonae as new members of Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54, 813-818.

Christensen, H., Kuhnert, P., Bisgaard, M., Mutters, R., Dziva, F. and Olsen J. E. 2005. Emended description of porcine [Pasteurella] aerogenes, [Pasteurella] mairii and [Actinobacillus] rossii. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 55, 209-223.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Angen, Ø., Frederiksen, W. and Olsen, J. E. 2005. Characterization of sucrose negative variants of Pasteurella multocida including isolates from large cat bite-wounds. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43, 259-270.

Christensen, H., Hommez, J., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M. 2006. [Pasteurella] caballi infection not limited to horses - a closer look at Taxon 42 of Bisgaard. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 43, 424-9.

Christensen, H., Kuhnert, P., Busse, H.-J., Frederiksen, W. and Bisgaard, M. 2007. Proposed minimal standards for the description of genera, species and subspecies of the Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 166-178.

Christensen, H. & Bisgaard, M. 2010. Molecular classification and its impact on diagnostics and understanding the phylogeny and epidemiology of selected members of Pasteurellaceae of veterinary importance. Berliner und Munchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 123, 20-30.

Christensen, H., Bojesen, A. M. & Bisgaard, M. 2011. Mannheimia caviae sp. nov., isolated from epidemic conjunctivitis and otitis media in guinea pigs. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61, 1699-1704.

Christensen, H., Korczak, B.M., Bojesen, A.M., Kuhnert, P., Frederiksen, W.C. & Magne Bisgaard, M. 2011. Classification of organisms previously reported as the SP- or Stewart-Letscher group with Necropsobacter gen. nov., and description of a new species Necropsobacter rosorum, sp. nov., for organisms of the SP-group. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61, 1829-1836.

Christensen, H., Bertelsen, M.F., Bojesen, A.M. & Bisgaard, M. 2012. Classification of Pasteurella sp. B as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62, 1396-1401.

Christensen, H., Nicklas, W. & Bisgaard, M. (2014). Mesocricetibacter intestinalis gen. nov., sp. nov.
and Cricetibacter osteomyelitidis gen. nov., sp. nov. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 64, 3636û3643.

Christensen, H., Kuhnert, P., Nørskov-Lauritsen, N., Planet, P.J., & Bisgaard, M. 2014. Family
Pasteurellaceae. In The Prokaryotes 4th ed. Vol. 9, pp. 535-564. Erko Stackebrandt, Eugene Rosenberg, Ed
Delong, Steven Lory, and Fabiano Thompson. Springer, New York.

Christensen, H., Blackall, P. K. & Bisgaard, M. 2016. Pasteurellaceae: Pasteurella, Avibacterium, Gallibacterium species. In A laboratory manual for the isolation, identification and characterization of avian pathogens. 6th ed. Pp. 85-98. Edited by Williams, S. M., Dufour-Zavala, L., Jackwood, M., Lee, M. W., Lupiani, B., Reed, W. M., Spackman, E. & Woolcock, P. R. American Association of Avian Pathologists. Jacksonville, FL.

Christensen, H., Bossé, J., Angen, Ø., Nørskov-Lauritsen, N. and Bisgaard, M. 2020. Immunological and molecular techniques used for determination of serotypes in Pasteurellaceae. Chapter 5. Methods in Microbiology 47, 117-149.

Christensen, H., Kuhnert P., Foster, G. and Bisgaard, M. 2021. Reclassification of [Haemophilus] haemoglobinophilus as Canicola haemoglobinophilus gen. nov., comb. nov. including Bisgaard taxon 35. IJSEM 71, 4881.

Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Menke, T., Liman, M., Timsit , E., Foster, G., Olsen, J. E. 2021. Prediction of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes based on whole genomic sequences. Vet. Microbiol. 109232 .

Chuba, P. J., Bock, R., Graf, G., Adam, T. and Gobel, U. (1988). Comparison of 16S rRNA sequences from the family Pasteurellaceae: phylogenetic relatedness by cluster analysis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134, 1923-1930. THIS IS THE FIRST 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE COMPARISON OF THE PASTEURELLACEAE.

Chung, J. Y., Wilkie, I., Boyce, J. D., Townsend, K. M., Frost, A. J., Ghoddusi, M. and Adler, B. (2001). Role of capsule in the pathogenesis of fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida serogroup A. Infect. Immun. 69, 2487-2492.

Ciprian, A., Pijoan, C., Cruz, T., Camacho, J., Tortora, J., Colmenares, G., Lopez-Revilla, R., and Garza, M. de la (1988). Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae increases the susceptibility of pigs to experimental Pasteurella multocida pneumonia. Can. J. Vet. Res. 52, 434-438.

Clark, D. S. and Godfrey, J. F. (1960). Atypical Pasteurella infections in chickens. Avian Dis. 4, 280-290.

Cox, A. J., Hunt, M. L., Boyce, J. D. and Adler, B. (2003). Functional characterization of HgbB, a new hemoglobin binding protein of Pasteurella multocida. Microbial Pathog. 34, 287-296.

Czuprynski, C. J., Noel, E. J. and Adlam, C. (1991). Interaction of bovine alveolar macrophages with Pasteurella haemolytica A1 in vitro: modulation by purified capsular polysaccharide. Vet. Microbiol. 26, 349-358.

Davies, R. L. and Baillie, S. (2003). Cytotoxic activity of Mannheimia haemolytica strains in relation to diversity of the leukotoxin structural gene lktA. Vet. Microbiol. 92, 263-279.

Davies, R. L., Arkinsaw, S. and Selander, R. K. (1997 b). Genetic relationships among Pasteurella trehalosi isolates based on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Microbiology 143, 2841-2849.

Davies, R. L., Whittam, T. S. and Selander, R. K (2001). Sequence diversity and molecular evolution of the leukotoxin (lktA) gene in bovine and ovine strains of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. J. Bacteriol. 183, 1394-1404

Davies, R. L., Campbell, S. and Whittam, T. S. (2002). Mosaic structure and molecular evolution of the leukotoxin operon (lktCABD) in Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, Mannheimia glucosida, and Pasteurella trehalosi. J. Bacteriol. 184, 266-77.

Davies, R. L., MacCorquodale, R. and Reilly, S. (2004). Characterisation of bovine strains of Pasteurella multocida and comparison with isolates of avian, ovine and porcine origin. Vet. Microbiol. 99, 145-58.

De Alvis, M. C. L. (1992). Haemorrhagic septicaemia. A general review. Br. Vet. J. 148, 99-112.

De Luca E, Álvarez-Narváez S, Maboni G, Baptista RP, Nemeth NM, Niedringhaus KD, Ladner JT, Lorch JM, Koroleva G, Lovett S, Palacios GF, Sanchez S. 2021. Comparative Genomics Analyses Support the Reclassification of Bisgaard Taxon 40 as Mergibacter gen. nov., With Mergibacter septicus sp. nov. as Type Species: Novel Insights Into the Phylogeny and Virulence Factors of a Pasteurellaceae Family Member Associated With Mortality Events in Seabirds. Front Microbiol. 12, 667356. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.667356. RECLASSIFICATION OF TAXON 40 OF BISGAARD AS NEW GENUS. NOTE THAT THE NAME IS NOT VALIDLY PUBLISHED.

DeAngelis, P. L., Gunay, N. S., Toida, T., Mao, W. J. and Linhardt, R. J. (2002). Identification of the capsular polysaccharides of Type D and F Pasteurella multocida as unmodified heparin and chondroitin, respectively. Carbohydr. Res. 337, 1547-1552.

DeLey, J., Cattoir, H. and Reynaerts, A. (1970). The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Eur. J. Biochem. 12, 133-142.

DeLey, J., Mannheim, W., Mutters, R., Piechulla, K., Tytgat, R., Segers, P., Bisgaard, M., Frederiksen, W., Hinz, K.-H. and Vanhoucke, M. (1990). Inter- and intrafamilial similarities of rRNA cistrons of the Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 40, 126-137.

Dewhirst, F. E., Paster, B. J. and Bright, P. L. (1989). Chromobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella, Neisseria, Simonsiella, and Vitreoscilla species comprise a major branch of the beta group Proteobacteria by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequence comparison: transfer of Eikenella and Simonsiella to the family Neisseriaceae (emend.). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39, 258-266.

Dewhirst, F. E., Paster, B. J., Olsen, I. and Fraser, G. J. (1992). Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences. J. Bacteriol. 174, 2002-2013.

Dewhirst, F. E., Paster, B. J., Olsen, I. and Fraser, G. J. (1993). Phylogeny of the Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279, 35-44.

Dibb, W. L., Digranes, A. and Tonjum, S. (1981). Actinobacillus lignieresii infection after a horse bite. Br. Med. J. 283, 583-584.

Donà V, Perreten V. 2018. Comparative Genomics of the First and Complete Genome of "Actinobacillus porcitonsillarum" Supports the Novel Species Hypothesis. Int J Genomics. 30, 5261719. doi: 10.1155/2018/5261719. DOCUMENTATION FOR THE SPECIES LIKE NATURE of 'A. porcitonsillarum' FROM WGS COMPARISONS AND CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH Actinobacillus minor

Dziva, F.,Muhairwa, A., Bisgaard, M. and Christensen, H. 2008. Diagnostic and typing options for
investigating diseases associated with Pasteurella multocida. Vet. Microbiol. 128, 1-22.

Escande F., Grimont, F., Grimont, P. A. D. and Bercovier, H. (1984). Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness among strains of Actinobacillus spp. and Pasteurella ureae. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 34, 309-315.

Fink, D. L., and Geme, J. W. St. III. (2001). The genus Haemophilus. In: The Prokaryotes: an evolving electronic resource for the microbiological community. Ver. 3.13. Dworkin, M. and Lyons, C. (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York.  

Fleischmann, R. D., Adams, M. D., White, O., Clayton, R. A., Kirkness, E. F., Kerlavage, A. R., Bult, C. J., Tomb, J. F., Dougherty, B. A., Merrick, J. M. et al. (1995). Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. Science 269, 496-512.

Frank, G. H. (1989). Pasteurellosis of cattle. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.). Acad. Press, London, pp. 197-222.

Frederiksen, W. (1989). A note on the name Pasteurella multocida. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.). Acad. Press, London, pp. 35-36.

Frederiksen, W. (1993). Ecology and significance of Pasteurellaceae in Man - an update. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279, 27-34.

Frey, J. (1995). Virulence in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and RTX toxins. Trends Microbiol. 3, 257-261.

Frey, J. (2003). Detection, identification, and subtyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 216. PCR Detection of Microbial Pathogens. Sachse, K. and Frey, J. (Eds.). Humana Press, Totowa, pp. 87-95.

Frey, J. and Kuhnert, P. (2002). RTX toxins in Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 292, 149-158.

Frey, J. and Nicolet, J. (1988). Purification and partial characterization of a hemolysin produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae type strain 4074. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 55, 41-46.

Frey, J., Kuhn, R. and Nicolet, J. (1994). Association of the CAMP phenomenon in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with the RTX toxins ApxI, ApxII and ApxIII. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 124, 245-251.

Friis-Møller, A. (1981). A new Actinobacillus species from the human respiratory tract: Actinobacillus hominis nov. sp. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.). Acad. Press, London, pp. 151-157.

Garrido, M. E., Bosch, M., Medina, R., Bigas, A., Llagostera, M., Perez De Rozas, A. M., Badiola, I. and Barbe, J. (2003). fur-independent regulation of the Pasteurella multocida hbpA gene encoding a haemin-binding protein. Microbiology 149, 2273-2281.

Gerlach, H. (1977). Die bedeuting von Pasteurella haemolytica in Hhnerbest„nden. Der praktische Tierarzt 5, 324-328.

Gilmour, N. J. L. and Gilmour, J. S. (1989). Pasteurellosis of sheep. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.), Acad. Press, London, pp. 223-262.

Gonzalez, G. C., Caamano, D. L. and Schryvers, A. B. (1990). Identification and characterization of a porcine-specific transferrin receptor in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 4, 1173-1179.

Gray-Owen, S. D., Loosmore, S. and Schryvers, A. B. (1995). Identification and characterization of genes encoding the human transferrin-binding proteins from Haemophilus influenzae. Infect. Immun. 63, 1201-1210.

Greenham, L. W. and Hill, T. J. (1962). Observations on an avian strain of Pasteurella haemolytica. Vet. Rec. 74, 861-863.

Gregersen, R.H., Neubauer, C., Christensen, H., Bojesen, A.M., Hess, M., & Bisgaard, M. 2009.
Comparative studies on [Pasteurella] testudinis and [Pasteurella] testudinis-like bacteria and proposal of
Chelonobacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. as a new member of the Pasteurellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
Microbiol. 59, 1583-1588.  

Guettler, M. V., Rumler, D. and Jain, M. K. (1999). Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain form the bovine rumen. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 49, 207-216.

Hacking, W. C. and Pettit, J. R. (1974). Pasteurella hemolytica in pullets and laying hens. Avian Dis. 18, 483-486.

Hall, W. J., Heddleston, K. L., Legenhausen, D. H. and Hughes, R. W. (1955). Studies on Pasteurellosis: A new species of Pasteurella encountered in chronic fowl cholera. Am. J. Vet. Res. 16, 598-604.

Hampson, D. J., Blackall, P. J., Woodward, J. M. and Lymbery, A. J. (1993). Genetic analysis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and comparison with Haemophilus spp. Taxon "minor group" and Taxon C. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279, 83-91.

Hansen, M., Bertelsen, M.F., Christensen, H., Bojesen, A.M. & Bisgaard, M. 2012. Otariodibacter
oris, gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity pinniopeds.
IJSEM 62, 2572-8.

Hansen, M.J., Bertelsen, M.F., Christensen, H. & Bojesen, A.M. 2015. Bisgaardia miroungae sp.
nov., a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of northern elephant seals
(Mirounga angustirostris), and emended description of the genus Bisgaardia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 65,
388-92.

Hansen, M. J., Braaten, M. S., Bojesen, A. M., Christensen, H., Sonne, C., Rune Dietz, R. &
Bertelsen, M. F. 2015. Ursidibacter maritimus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Ursidibacter arcticus sp. nov., two
new members of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of bears. IJSEM 65, 3683-9.

Hansen, M.J., Pennanen, E.A., Bojesen, A.M., Christensen, H. & Bertelsen, M.F. 2016. Testudinibacter aquarius gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of freshwater turtles. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 66, 567-73.

Heddleston, K. L., Gallagher, J. E. and Rebers, P. A. (1972). Fowl cholera: gel diffusion precipitin test for serotyping Pasteruella multocida from avian species. Avian Dis. 16, 925-936.

Highlander, S. K., Fedorova, N. D., Dusek, D. M., Panciera, R., Alvarez, L. E. and Rinehart, C. (2000). Inactivation of Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin causes partial attenuation of virulence in a calf challenge model. Infect. Immun. 68, 3916-3922.

Hinz, K.-H. and Kunjara, C. (1977). Haemophilus avium, a new species from chickens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriool 27, 324-329.

Inzana, T. J., Johnson, J. L., Shell, L., M?ller, K. and Kilian, M. (1992). Isolation and characterization of a newly identified Haemophilus species from cats: "Haemophilus felis". J. Clin. Microbiol. 30, 2108-2112.

Jacques, M., Kobisch, M., Belanger, M. and Dugal, F. (1993). Virulence of capsulated and noncapsulated isolates of Pasteurella multocida and their adherence to porcine respiratory tract cells and mucus. Infect. Immun. 61, 4785-4792.

Jacques, M., Belanger, M., Diarra, M. S., Dargis, M. and Malouin, F. (1994). Modulation of Pasteurella multocida capsular polysaccharide during growth under iron-restricted conditions and in vivo. Microbiology 140, 263-270.

Jaglic, Z., Jeklova, E., Christensen, H., Leva, L., Register, K., Kummer, V., Kucerova,Z., Faldyna, M.,
Maskova, J. & Nedbalcova, K. 2011. Host response in rabbits to infection with Pasteurella multocida
serogroup F strains originating from fowl cholera. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 75, 200-208.

Jansen, R., Briaire, J., Smith, H. E., Dom, P., Haesebrouck, F., Kamp, E. M., Gielkens, A. L. and Smits, M. A. (1995 a). Knockout mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 that are devoid of RTX toxins do not activate or kill porcine neutrophils. Infect. Immun. 63, 27-37.  

Jansen, R., Briaire, J., Kamp, E. M., Gielkens, A. L. and Smits, M. A. (1995 b). The CAMP effect of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is caused by Apx toxins. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 139-143.

Jawetz, E. (1950). A pneumotropic pasteurella of laboratory animals. I. Bacteriological and serological characteristics of the organisms. J. Infect. Dis. 86, 172-183.

Jordan, R. W., Hamilton, T. D. C., Hayes, C. M., Patel, D., Jones, P. H., Roe, J. M. and Williams, N. A. (2003). Modulation of the humoral immune response of swine and mice mediated by toxigenic Pasteurella multocida. FEMS Imm. Med. Mic. 39, 51-59.

Kainz, A., Lubitz, W. and Busse, H. J. (2000). Genomic fingerprints, ARDRA profiles and quinone systems for classification of Pasteurella sensu stricto. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 23, 494-503.

Kamp, E. M., Popma, J. K., Anakotta, J. and Smits, M. A. (1991). Identification of hemolytic and cytotoxic proteins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by use of monoclonal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 59, 3079-3085.

Kamp, E. M., Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N., van Leengoed, L. A. and Smits, M. A. (1997). Endobronchial inoculation with Apx toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae leads to pleuropneumonia in pigs. Infect. Immun. 65, 4350-4354.

Khairat, O. (1940). Endocarditis due to a new species of Haemophilus. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 50, 497-505.

Kielstein, P., Wuthe, H., Angen, ?., Mutters, R. and Ahrens, P. (2001). Phenotypic and genetic characterization of NAD-dependent Pasteurellaceae from the respiratory tract of pigs and their possible pathogenetic importance. Vet. Microbiol. 81, 243-255.

Kilian, M. (1976). A taxonomic study of the genus Haemophilus, with the proposal of a new species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 93, 9-62.

Kjos-Hanssen, B. (1950). Egglederperitonitt for”rsaket av patogen "kloakkbakterie" hos h?ns. Nord. Vet.-Med. 2, 523-531.

Kohlert, R. (1968). Untersuchungen zur „tiologie der Eileiterentzndung beim Huhn. Monatshefte fr Veterin„rmedizin 23, 392-395.

Kolodrubetz, D., Dailey, T., Ebersole, J. and Kraig, E. (1989). Cloning and expression of the leukotoxin gene from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Infect. Immun. 57, 1465-1469.

Korczak, B., Christensen, H., Emler, S., Frey, J. and Kuhnert, P. (2004). Phylogeny of the family Pasteurellaceae based on rpoB sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54, 1393-1399.

Krause, T. H., Bertschinger, H. U., Corboz, L. and Mutters, R. (1987). V-factor dependent strains of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A 266, 255-260.

Kuhnert, P and Christensen, H. 2008. Pasteurellaceae, Biology, genomics and molecular aspects. Caister Acad. Press.

Kuhnert, P., Heyberger-Meyer, B., Nicolet, J. and Frey, J. (2000). Characterization of PaxA and its operon: a cohemolytic RTX toxin determinant from pathogenic Pasteurella aerogenes. Infect. Immun. 68, 6-12.

Kuhnert, P., Berthoud, H., Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. and Frey, J. (2003). Phylogenetic relationship of equine Actinobacillus species and distribution of RTX toxin genes among clusters. Vet Res. 34, 353-359.

Kuhnert, P., Korczak, B., Christensen, H. and Bisgaard, M. 2007. Emended description of Actinobacillus capsulatus Arseculeratne 1962, 38AL. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 625-632.

Kuhnert, P., Bisgaard, M., Korczak, B.M., Schwendener, S., Christensen, H. & Frey, J. 2012.
Identification of Animal Pasteurellaceae by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. J. Mic. Methods 89, 1-7.

Kuhnert, P., Brodard; I., Schönecker; L., Akarsu, H., Christensen, H. & Bisgaard, M. 2021. Mannheimia pernigra sp. nov., isolated from bovine respiratory tract. IJSEM 71:004643.

Lally, E. T., Golub, E. E., Kieba, I. R., Taichman, N. S., Rosenbloom, J., Rosenbloom, J. C., Gibson, C. W. and Demuth, D. R. (1989). Analysis of the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin gene. Delineation of unique features and comparison to homologous toxins. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 15451-15456.

Larsen, J., Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Angen, Ï., Ahrens, P. and Olsen, J. E. 2007. Tracing the
origin and evolution of the leukotoxin operon in genus Mannheimia. J. Mol. Evol. 64, 423-437.

Larsen, J., Kuhnert, P., Frey, J., Christensen, H. Bisgaard, M. & Olsen, J. E. 2008. Analysis of gene
order data supports vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon and genome rearrangements in the 5Æ
flanking region in genus Mannheimia. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7, 184.

Larsen, J., Pedersen, A.G., Davies, R.L., Kuhnert, P., Frey, J., Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Olsen,
J.E. 2009. Evolution of the leukotoxin promoter in genus Mannheimia. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9, 121.

Lax, A. J., and Chanter, N. (1990). Cloning of the toxin gene from Pasteurella multocida and its role in atrophic rhinitis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136, 81-87.

Lax, A. J., Pullinger, G. D., Baldwin, M. R., Harmey, D., Grigoriadis, A. E. and Lakey, J. H. (2004). The Pasteurella multocida toxin interacts with signalling pathways to perturb cell growth and differentiation. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293, 505-512.

Lo, R. Y., Shewen, P. E., Strathdee, C. A. and Greer, C. N. (1985). Cloning and expression of the leukotoxin gene of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 in Escherichia coli K-12. Infect. Immun. 50, 667-671.

Lo, R. Y., Strathdee, C. A. and Shewen, P. E. (1987). Nucleotide sequence of the leukotoxin genes of Pasteurella haemolytica A1. Infect. Immun. 55, 1987-1996.

Madsen, E. B., Bisgaard, M., Mutters, R. and Pedersen, K. B. 1985. Characterization of Pasteurella species isolated from lungs of calves with pneumonia. Can. J. Comp. Med. 49, 63-67.

Mannheim, W. (1989). Isolierung und Identifiziering von Pasteurellaceae (Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Actinobacillus und verwandte taxa). Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 272, 87-109.

May, B. J., Zhang, Q., Li, L. L., Paustian, M. L., Whittam, T. S. and Kapur, V. (2001). Complete genomic sequence of Pasteurella multocida, Pm70. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98, 3460-3465.

Mbuthia, P. G., Christensen, H., Boye, M., Petersen, K. M. D., Bisgaard, M., Nyaga, P. N. and Olsen,
J. E. 2001. Specific detection of Pasteurella multocida in fowl chorela and pig lung tissues using fluorescent
rRNA in situ hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39, 2627-2633.

McAllister, H. A. and Carter, G. R. (1974). An aerogenic Pasteurella-like organism recovered from swine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 35, 917-922.

McFadden, A. M. J., Christensen, H., Hill, F., Gill, J., Fairley, R., Keeling, S. & Spence, R. P. 2011.
Outbreaks of pleuritis and peritonitis in calves caused by Pasteurella multocida capsular type B and E
strains. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 59, 40-45.

McKerral, L. J. and Lo, R. Y. (2002). Construction and characterization of an acapsular mutant of Mannheimia haemolytica A1. Infect. Immun. 70, 2622-2629.

Meats, E. , Feil, E. J., Stringer, S., Cody, A. J., Goldstein, R., Kroll, J. S., Popovic, T. and Spratt, B. G. (2003). Characterization of encapsulated and noncapsulated Haemophilus influenzae and determination of phylogenetic relationships by multilocus sequence typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 1623-1636.

Musser, J. M., Rapp, V. J. and Selander R. K. (1987). Clonal diversity in Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 55, 1207-1215.

Mutters, R., Piechulla, K., Hinz, K.-H. and Mannheim, W. (1985 a). Pasteurella avium (Hinz and Kunjara 1977) comb. nov. and Pasteurella volantium sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35, 5-9.

Mutters, R., Ihm, P., Pohl, S., Frederiksen, W. and Mannheim, W. (1985 b). Reclassification of the genus Pasteurella Trevisan 1887 on the basis of DNA homology with proposals for the new species Pasteurella dagmatis, Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella stomatis, Pasteurella anatis, and Pasteurella langaa. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35, 309-322.

Mutters, R., Mannheim, W. and Bisgaard, M. (1989). Taxonomy of the Group. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.). Acad. Press, London, pp. 3-34.

Møller, K., Fussing, V., Grimont, P. A. D., Paster, B. J., Dewhirst, F. E. and Kilian, M. (1996). Actinobacillus minor sp. nov., Actinobacillus porcinus, sp. nov., and Actinobacillus indolicus sp. nov., three new V factor-dependent species from the respiratory tract of pigs. Int. J. Syst. Bact. 46, 951-956.

Newsom, I. E. and Cross, F. 1932. Some bipolar organisms found in pneumonia of sheep. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 80, 711-719.

Nicklas, W., Bisgaard, M., Aalbæk, B., Kuhnert, P. & Christensen, H. 2015. Reclassification of
Actinobacillus muris as Muribacter muris gen. nov. comb. nov. IJSEM 65, 3344-51.

Niven, D. F. and O'Reilly, T. (1990). Significance of V-factor dependency in the taxonomy of Haemophilus species and related organisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40, 1-4.

Nørskov-Lauritsen, N., Christensen, H. Okkels, H., Kilian, M. and Bruun, B. (2004 a). Delineation of the genus Actinobacillus by comparison of partial infB sequences. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 54, 635-644.

Nørskov-Lauritsen, N., Bruun, B. and Kilian, M. (2004 b). Multilocus sequene phylogenetic study of the genus Haemophilus with description of Haemophilus pittmaniae sp. nov. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 54.

Osawa, R., Rainey, F., Fujisawa, T., Lang, E., Busse, H. J., Walsh, T. P. and Stackebrandt, E. (1995). Lonepinella koalarum gen. nov., sp. nov., a new tannin-protein complex degrading bacterium. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 18, 368-373.

Petersen, A., Christensen, H., Kodjo, A., Weiser, G. & Bisgaard, M. 2009. Development of a
multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Mannheimia haemolytica and assessment of the population
structure of isolates obtained from cattle and sheep. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 9, 626-632.

Petersen, A., Bisgaard, M., Townsend, K. & Christensen, H. 2014. MLST typing of Pasteurella
multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia and development of a real-time PCR specific for
haemorrhagic septicaemia associated isolates. Vet. Microbiol. 170, 355-41.

Petersen, S. K. and Foged, N. T. (1989). Cloning and expression of the Pasteurella multocida toxin gene, toxA, in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 57, 3907-3913.

Piechulla, K., Bisgaard, M., Gerlach, H. and Mannheim, W. (1985). Taxonomy of some recently described avian Pasteurella/Actinobacillus-like organisms as indicated by deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness. Avian Pathol. 14, 281-311.

Pittman, M. (1953). A classification of the haemolytic bacteria of the genus Haemophilus: Haemophilus haemolyticus
et al. and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus nov. spec. J. Bacteriol. 65, 750-751.

Pittman, M. and Davis, D. J. (1950). Identification of the Koch-Weeks bacillus (Haemophilus aegyptius). J. Bacteriol. 59, 413-426.

Pohl, S. (1981). DNA relatedness among members of Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus. In: Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus. Kilian, M., Frederiksen, W. and Biberstein, E. L. (Eds.). Acad. Press. London, pp. 245-253

Pohl, S., Bertschinger, H. U., Frederiksen, W. and Mannheim, W. (1983). Transfer of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae and the Pasteurella haemolytica-like organism causing porcine necrotic pleuropneumonia to the genus Actinobacillus (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae comb. nov.) on the basis of phenotypic and deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33, 510-514.

Pors, S.E., Hansen, M.S., Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Jensen, H.E. & Petersen, A. 2011. Genetic
diversity of Pasteurella multocida from porcine pneumonia as demonstrated by pulsed-field gel
electrophoresis and multi locus sequence typing. Vet. Microbiol. 150, 354-361.

Pullinger, G. D., Bevir, T. and Lax, A. J. (2004). The Pasteurella multocida toxin is encoded within a lysogenic bacteriophage. Mol. Microbiol. 51, 255-269.

Ribeiro, G. A., Carter, G. R., Frederiksen, W. and Riet-Correa, F. 1989. Pasteurella haemolytica-like bacterium from a progressive granuloma of cattle in Brazil. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27, 1401-1402.

Rimler, R. B. (1994). Presumptive identification of Pasteurella multocida serogroups A, D, and F by capsule depolymerisation with mucopolysaccaridases. Vet. Res. 134, 191-192.

Rimler, R. B. and Rhoades, K. R. (1987). Serogroup F, a new capsule serogroup of Pasteurella multocida. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25, 615-618.

Rimler, R.B., and Rhoades, K. R. (1989). Pasteurella multocida. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.). Acad. Press, London, pp. 37-73.

Rosenbusch, C. T. and Merchant, I. A. (1939). A study of the hemorrhagic septicemia Pasteurellae. J. Bacteriol. 37, 69-89.

Rozengurt, E., Higgins, T., Chanter, N., Lax, A. J. and Staddon, J. M. (1990). Pasteurella multocida toxin: potent mitogen for cultured fibroblasts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 123-127.

Samitz, E. M. and Biberstein, E. L. (1991). Actinobacillus suis-like organisms and evidence of hemolytic strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii in horses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 52, 1245-1251.

Schaller, A., Kuhn, R., Kuhnert, P., Nicolet, J., Anderson, T. J., MacInnes, J. I., Segers, R. P. and Frey, J. (1999). Characterization of apxIVA, a new RTX determinant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Microbiology 145, 2105-2116.

Schlater, L.K., Brenner, D. J., Steigerwalt, A. G., Moss, C. W., Lambert, M. A. and Packer, R. A. (1989). Pasteurella caballi, a new species from equine clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27, 2169-2174.

Schmid, H., Hartung, M. and Hellmann, E. (1991). Crossed immunoelectrophoresis applied to representative strains from 11 different Pasteurella species under taxonomic aspects. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 275, 16-27.

Sinclair HA, Chapman P, Omaleki L, Bergh H, Turni C, Blackall P, Papacostas L, Braslins P, Sowden D, Nimmo GR. Identification of Lonepinella sp. in Koala Bite Wound Infections, Queensland, Australia. 2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 25, 153-156. doi: 10.3201/eid2501.171359. DOCUMENTATION FOR THE EXISTENCE OF NEW SPECIES OF Lonepinella.

Sneath, P. H. A. and Stevens, M. (1990). Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40, 148-153.

Snipes, K. P. and Biberstien, E. L. (1982). Pasteurella testudinis sp. nov.: a parasite of desert tortoises (Gopherum agassizi). Int. J. Syst. Bact. 32, 201-210.

Strathdee, C. A. and Lo, R. Y. (1989). Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and characterization of genes encoding the secretion function of the Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin determinant. J. Bacteriol. 171, 916-928.

Taichman, N. S., Simpson, D. L., Sakurada, S., Cranfield, M., DiRienzo, J. and Slots, J. (1987). Comparative studies on the biology of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in primates. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 2, 97-104.

Targowski, S. and Targowski, H. (1979). Characterization of a Haemophilus paracuniculus isolated from gastrointestinal tracts of rabbits with mucoid enteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9, 33-37.

Timsit, E., Christensen, H., Bareille, N., Seegers, H., Bisgaard, M. & AssiÚ, S. 2013. Transmission
dynamics of Mannheimia haemolytica in newly-receivedbeef bulls at fattening operations. Vet. Micro. 161,
295-304.

Totten, P. A., Kuypers, J. M., Chen, C. Y., Alfa, M. J., Parsons, L. M., Dutro, S. M., Morse, S. A. and Kiviat, N. B. (2000). Etiology of genital ulcer disease in Dakar, Senegal, and comparison of PCR and serologic assays for detection of Haemophilus ducreyi. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38, 268-273.

Townsend, K. M., Boyce, J. D., Chung, J. Y. Frost, A. J. and Adler, B. (2001). Genetic organization of Pasteurella multocida cap loci and development of a multiplex capsular PCR typing system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39, 924-929.

Turni, C., Wu, Y., Omaleki L., Giang, N., Blackall, P. J. & Christensen, H. 2020. Glaesserella australis sp. nov., isolated from the lungs of pigs Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 70, 3686-3692.

Ujvári B, Szeredi L, Magyar T. 2020. Detection of Frederiksenia sp. isolated from a cat with nephritis. Acta Vet Hung. 68, 140-146. doi: 10.1556/004.2020.00021. NEW SPECIES LIKE TAXON RELATED TO Frederiksenia canicola based THE CHARACTERIZATION OF A SINGLE STRAIN.  

Van Ostaaijen, J., Frey, J., Rosendal, S. and MacInnes, J. I. (1997). Actinobacillus suis strains isolated from healthy and diseased swine are clonal and carry apxICABD var. suis and apxIICA var. suis toxin genes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 1131-1137.

Winslow, C.-E.A., Broadhurst, J., Buchanan, R. E., Krumwiede, C., Jr., Rogers, L. A. and Smith, G. H. (1917). The families and genera of the bacteria. Preliminary report of the Committee of the Society of American Bacteriologists on characterization and classification of bacterial types. J. Bacteriol. 2, 506-566.

Xin, D., Bisgaard, M., Busse, H.-B., Olsen, R. H., Hess, C., Aalbæk, B., Olsen, J. E. & Christensen, H. 2019. Reclassification of Bisgaard taxon 37 and 44 as Psittacicella melopsittaci gen. nov., sp. nov., Psittacicella hinzii sp. nov. and Psittacicella gerlachiana sp. nov. within Psittacicellaceae fam. nov. of the order Pasteurellales. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 69, 350-355.

Zinnemann, K. (1967). Report of the subcommittee on the taxonomy of Haemophilus (1962-1966). Int. J. Syst. Bact. 17, 165-166.

Zinnemann, K. (1981). Some historical aspects of the genera Haemophilus, Pasteurella and Actinobacillus, and some of their species. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Adlam, C. and Rutter, J. M. (Eds.). Acad. Press, London, pp. 1-10.

Zinnemann, K., Rogers, K. B., Frazer, J. and Boyce, J. M. (1968). A new V-dependent Haemophilus species preferring increased CO2 tension for growth and named Haemophilus paraphrophilus, nov. sp. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 96, 413-419.

Zinnemann, K., Rogers, K. B., Frazer, J. and Devaraj, S. K. (1971). A haemolytic V-dependent CO2-preferring Haemophilus species (Haemophilus paraphrohaemolyticus nov. spec.). J. Med. Microbiol. 4, 139-143.